Various process technologies are available for the removal of micropollutants from municipal wastewater. The decision as to which process technology approach is suitable for the expansion of a particular wastewater treatment plant has to be made on a case-by-case basis. For the selection of an appropriate approach, it is not only necessary to take into account the withdrawal efficiency, but also the technical feasibility under economic and ecological aspects.
Please refer to Figure 1 for an overview of various available methods of removing micropollutants.
The different processes can be initially classified on the basis on their mechanism of action (oxidative, adsorptive, physical). The process technologies can be further broken down based on the operation medium used and/or the approach.
The following pages will provide a separate description of the functional principle and possible approaches of the individual process principles for use in wastewater treatment plants.
Table 1 provides an overview of the locations where the different process technologies are tested and/or used on a large scale. Treatments stages for the removal of micropollutants that are to be retroactively integrated into existing wastewater treatment plants are already being planned and/or are currently under construction.
In principle, the different processes may be combined. There are numerous conceivable combinations of processes. However, the majority has not yet been tested, which is why their effect is unknown. For this purpose, further research will have to be performed.
Abegglen, C.; Siegrist, H. (2012): Mikroverunreinigungen aus kommunalem Abwasser. Verfahren zur weitergehenden Elimination auf Kläranlagen. Federal Office for the Environment, Bern, Umwelt-Wissen, issue 1214: p. 210. http://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publikation...